I have been proposing a three-level model of mental distress for several years. The first is the psychopathological that psychotherapies deal with. From the most common neuroses, which we all have in different ways, to the most disabling psychiatric disorders. At the other extreme we have existential discomfort. It usually becomes more evident in the second half of life. It concerns our condition as living, needy: mortality, uncertainty, pain and the question of meaning. Halfway between these two levels of mental distress are what I have long called Biases of the Homo Sapiens species. They are not reducible to the cognitive biases studied extensively in behavioral economics. They are more pervasive, structural, linked to motivational systems. One of these is the difficulty of staying in the present moment, the pervasive self-talk that sometimes becomes brooding. The field of research and application of mindfulness is one of the most targeted approaches to this type of biases that influence the quality of our individual and collective life.